Don’t Miss This Beauty Step!

Close-up of Woman Make up

If you’re like me you are a regular in the cosmetics aisle. Perusing the shelves, sampling the latest in lipstick formulas, eyeliners, and foundations searching for a flawless finish. Some of us fell in love with makeup whilst creating a mess in our mother’s vanities and ladies, some people never grew out of it.

Don’t worry, you’re not alone!

But being the makeup junkies we are the process of taking it off is just as important if not more than the practice of putting it on. An impeccable beat begins with a perfect base that can only be the result of skin that’s been properly prepped by removing dirt, oils, and residue every day.

That’s the reason a great makeup remover is KEY!

As someone who enjoys a complete face of glam, I learned the hard way that all makeup removers aren’t created equal. I used makeup remover wipes each evening before cleanup and would dismiss the smear of foundation that would be on my towel after drying off, not believing that if there was makeup there then there was still makeup left over on my head as well, seeping into my pores and leaving room for bacteria to grow.

Luckily there are a lot of methods for makeup removal besides remover wipes including cleansing balms, oils, gels, dissolving sprays even makeup removal sticks.

So after a stint of breakouts, I decided to upgrade my strategy and proceeded with a recommendation from a trusty Ulta employee.

I know, it’s a mouthful, but this baby is seriously powerful! The oil melts any makeup on the skin, then the micellar water cleanses and removes excess residue before you even rinse with your cleanser, so no more leftover makeup in your towels.


Do not get me wrong, I still keep makeup remover wipes by my mind or in my purse for those nights I’m too tired to do my entire routine. My favorites are the Sephora Collection Green Tea Cleansing & Exfoliating Wipes for the skin, which are soothing, supposed to be mattifying and great for acne-prone skin.

In the long run, it doesn’t matter which way you choose, find the best products that fit in with your lifestyle, just ensure that you have one that removes all leftover residue, trust me, it is game changing!

Migraines Suck!

Man in Blue Button-up Long-sleeve Shirt

If you have ever had one, then you know they suck. Throbbing pain, head pressure, upset stomach, traumatic distress… generally debilitating.

I had the dubious luck to find the blinding peripheral vision auras first and knew what was coming. I got myself some aspirin first, began drinking water, caffeine, and eating chocolate. Second, I rushed home from work and grabbed my hot flashes salve.

This was my first true experimentation. I did have a friend tell me that it helped her and while her headache was not removed (because frankly, not even modern medicine has that figured out) the symptoms were significantly enhanced.

I knew I had to cool down. I threw my work clothes off, cracked a couple of windows and laid down with my eyes shut, but not too tight as it pulls and leaves my skull want to explode.

The lid slid off and I rubbed it along my temples, and forehead. It was smooth and did not pull, so step one of the experience was complete. I rubbed fairly firmly along my temple and up in my hair and then over my eyebrows.

The relief was not instantaneous, but the combination of aspirin and salve got rid of the throbbing in my temples and behind my eyes. I was happy that it worked…

I applied it a few more times since I liked the experience of massaging my aching skull and my symptoms were gone through the night.

I gulped down some more ibuprofen and packed both cold and hot salves for work.

At work, I felt the pain coming, but I was cold sweating a bit. My hands, feet, and nose felt chilly. Out came the cold migraine salve. I did the identical massage methods and it felt very nice. The scent of this salve was also very nice and relaxing.

If anyone has had a similar experience or needs guidance on which salve is greatest, or simply wants to tell me how much migraines suck… Speak To Me. I wish to hear your own voice. I’m not a doctor, not claim to have a cure… rather only stating what has worked for me.

Cure Cancer Naturally?

Assorted Spices Near White Ceramic Bowls

Or over 50 years now, the world has been living in the stress of the mortal monster, Cancer. Each day, over 20,000 people die of cancer and with such numbers, it’s totally okay for people to be scared. But, there’s one pungent remedy that has proved to suppress the fear effectively: knowledge. Doctors and scientists believe that if cancer victims can conquer the illness in their own minds, then they can beat it from their bodies. Health magazines, tv shows and internet blogs devoted to spreading awareness on the possible antidotes of cancer have been put up and possibly soon enough, these efforts could just pay off.

Nevertheless, orthodox procedures to fight cancer continue to go belly up, in spite of all the billions of dollars poured into the research. Chemotherapy seems to be at the top of the, possibly, current breakthrough but the world is heavily hedging its bets on if chemotherapy is, indeed a cancer cure or just another risky provisional treatment process. Sure there are some patients who have been declared cancer-free after undergoing chemotherapy. But a good portion of the population has also been reported to be jobless following several years of being diagnosed cancer-free. In addition, the side effects of the process have shown quite fatal for some sufferers, with extreme cases of death been listed.

So is there a cancer treatment out there that works, without necessarily harming the body? Well, men like Howard Hoxey, Dr. Max Gerson, and Dr. Johanna Budwig have developed therapeutic formulas that they think can provide the body with the ideal metabolic requirements and effectively slow cancer down. And just to be clear, this isn’t a campaign or claim that this is the definite course of action for cancer cure. I am just merely stating that I strongly feel that these organic physiotherapies can go a long way to suppress the cancer cells, either alone or in unification with other traditional procedures. Here’s an all-inclusive approach to treating cancer.

Nutritional treatment

You are what you eat. A nutritious diet is the backbone of any successful therapy, artificial or not. Other nutrients which should be eschewed include processed foods, alcohol, coffee, fluorides and soft drinks. Knowing what to eat is vital for any cancer patient. Herbs, fruits, and vegetables that are highly rich in vitamins are incredible for bodily cleansing and repair.

Cancer patients should be prepared to embrace a raw diet, at least until their bodies stabilize. Keeping their fat intake to a minimum is very important. If possible, using natural oils like coconut oil is highly recommended. Avocados and nuts might be a great compromise to supply the essential fatty acids in the body required for oxygenation of the cells. Most importantly, digestion should not be knotty. The cancer cells are already straining the body and eating heavy foods like sugar, gluten, animal protein and lots of fats will only make the process worse, and probably accelerate tumor growth. Choosing natural supplements which neutralize the acidity in the body and provide an ample source of systemic and digestive enzymes is therefore obligatory to assist in the cancer healing process.

Muscle construction and Homeopathy

The body naturally depends upon its own immunity provided by the white blood cells, and I think this was the original plan up until hereditary disorders became something. Bearing in mind that cancer cells greatly mutate once in the body, it’s possible for the body, by virtue of innate immune intelligence, to defend itself against this multiplication before it becomes uncontrollable. The key now lies in energizing these particular cells. Dietary supplements such as Aloe Vera and mushroom extracts are perfect in this case.

Again, in homeopathy, the body’s natural healing power is thought to be activated. Here, small dosages of therapeutic substances are given to the individual to boost the immunity. Though research on homeopathy is still fragmentary, it is possible that it may prove counteractive in the near future.


For effective cancer recovery, it’s important to flush out the accumulated wastes and toxins from the body. Lots of resources that offer knowledge on body cleaning can be found online and in books. Body purification reduces the load on the kidneys and liver, stimulating the immune system to fight the cancerous cells wholly. To speed up the detoxification process, there are additional lifestyle practices that can be adopted in the home as an addendum. Regular exercising and stretching ensure that the white blood cells in the body stay active throughout. Taking regular baths and drenching in a sauna every now and then keeps skin clear to permit for reclamation through perspiration. Fasting rejuvenates the entire body and foods such as coffee enemas and castor oil prevent the reabsorption of toxins.

Raw chemotherapy

Artificial chemotherapy for cancer cure, though feasible, can have adverse secondary effects like hair loss and body fatigue among others. What most people don’t understand is that there are safe chemotherapies that effectively prevent malignancy within the body. Naturally occurring foods such as apricots seeds and apple pits include Amygdalin that actively targets and destroys the tumor. Of course, these treatments are not completely standalone and are often applied as part of the comprehensive cancer treatment.

Overall, embracing a more body-friendly lifestyle is the most imperative part of this organic therapeutic process. Taking regular naps to the fullest allows the body to rebuild and purify itself from carcinogens that develop in the body while you’re awake. Exercising frequently and basking in the sun for vitamin D are part of this salutary regime that you ought to aspire to adopt.

Stages Of Love

White and Pink Floral Freestanding Letter Decor

Being jointly aware about how relationships develop gives you a chance at committed love, and you can both relax and explore along the way.

It takes time to get to the point of commitment. Too many leap into commitment too premature. It causes heartbreak and disappointment.

Have you done that? Like a fairy tale with a first date and then living happily every after? It’s a fairy tale! The actual world is that love takes time. Take each of the 3 phases to get there.

Stage One – First Dates

Is there any chemistry? Everything’s very preliminary.

It’s not time yet to be considering a possible future together, simply checking out the other, and seeing if you’re interested enough for future dates.

Link chemistry’s physical, psychological, and spiritual. The physical is often obvious… do you find the person physically attractive? Would you like the eyes, mouth, body type? What about the voice and laugh, even the accent?

How does the person smell to you? What about taste?

If somebody tastes or smells of smoke, is a game-changer for you? Some things won’t ever change. Some things can or will change over time, but right now you’re in the stage of first impressions through the five senses.

There is also the emotional and spiritual connection that’s part of early chemistry discovery. How’s the conversation? What do you care about? Do you share similar interests and life views?

Stage Two is the Honeymoon

The Honeymoon’s special. It’s something many couples work to maintain aspects of afterwards in their relationships.

You see one another regularly. You have a lot of fun and excitement together as you get to actually know one another.

The honeymoon can last for a month or two, or up to a year. It ends as you get to recognize the humanity of your spouse. Your partner has defects, and you begin to see them. And they yours.

For many, the honeymoon is all they need. They’ve a kind of addiction to the thrill of their honeymoon.

They break up and move on as the honeymoon period evolves to its close. I call these folks 90-Day Wonders.

They’re terrific for a honeymoon, but lack the emotional stability and maturity to pursue a long-term relationship.

Relationship Commitment is Stage Three

When the honeymoon with the rose-colored glasses is ending, and you see one another’s lack of devotion, you may attempt to change one another.

You may struggle over who’s and who’s wrong in situations, beliefs, and attitudes. This can become a power struggle.

If you can get to the point where you accept one another as you are, rather than try to change perceived imperfections, many relationships become more powerful and endure.

Otherwise, breakup can happen, or, often worse, staying together and being miserable.

If the decision’s to accept your partner, and vice-versa, the relationship can continue and develop in a wholesome way. You have given one another a chance at finding love.

Are you interested in living your life intentionally to create the life you want to contribute? Research shows that using creative mindfulness is the way to Design the Life You Want.

A big part of the life we need is a Love Relationship. Are you sick and tired of failing to get what you want?


Free stock photo of person, relaxation, field, summer

Is cheerleading a sport? This is a question that many folks ask, and if they ask this question the most frequent answer is no. I 100% disagree with that. Cheerleading is one of the toughest, most time consuming, and dangerous sports that one can take part in. I’ve been cheering since I was 14 years old and I never regretted the decision to make sacrifices for this game and my team.

In competitive cheerleading there are many components. Stunting, Tosses, Tumbling, Jumps, and Dance sections are some of the most crucial parts that make up a routine. All of these sections are scored by technique, quantity, difficulty, and creativity. Most folks will ask, “How do we maximize our score in a routine?” Simply enough, there are usually charts on the internet that tell you how many people you need to take part in each section to max out your teams score.

Stunting is when one person (usually referred to as a flier or top woman) gets held in the air by typically 3 or less other people (known as foundations), when stunting the bases must find a creative way to get the girl into the atmosphere and then just catch their feet. Usually this means that the flier is going to have to spin or flip from the ground to get to the peak of the stunt with the assistance of her foundations tossing her up. This may be the most dangerous part of cheerleading if the bases and flier aren’t trained correctly. The flier has to learn how to control her body and the bases need to have the ability to capture the flier as she flips and spins on the way up or down from a stunt.

As we get to the tumbling section a lot of people need to understand the mental and physical strength that has to do with this particular part of cheerleading. Tumbling is exactly what you see on the Olympics when the gymnasts are turning all over the place on their floor routines. While the cheerleaders and gymnasts make this seem easy, it requires a whole lot of time to get all these critical skills for the team you’re on. A fantastic example of a group which maximizes their higher-level tumbling abilities is Top Gun: TGLC.

Tosses are almost like stunting except the objective of a throw is to throw the flier as high in the air as your can and then catcher her on down the road. While the girl is about 10 to 15 feet in the air she must then kick, twist, or reverse depending on what level the team she is on competes. The bases must concentrate on the girl that’s in the air the entire time as she does her twists, kicks, and flips while there are bright lights that are shining on the stage beaming in their eyes. All of them must be sure they do their jobs since when the flier messes up then she kicks a base and doesn’t get caught, if the bases look away or get distracted then the flier hits the ground and can become seriously injured.

Jumps require the cheerleader to jump of the floor and hit a position with their legs. Jumps are my main struggle as they take a whole lot of time and hip flexor strength for them to an appropriate height. Based on what degree the group is some of these athletes even have to add a tumbling pass connected to a jump.

Dance is where the majority of the teams will get super creative. This is usually at the end of a regular and only lasts about 15 minutes. Coaches will go step-by-step and section-by-section to be sure that every motion and every movement is made at the specific time that it is supposed to. Most teams will incorporate hip or other styles of dancing to give the conclusion of the regular some flair and sass.

Most people don’t realize just how much work is put to a cheerleading routine. For the whole 2 minutes and 30 seconds these athletes are focused and committed to this routine. The same as football or baseball they spend hours and hours at the gym working to perfect those skills to succeed. Cheerleading is a sport and the children are defiantly athletes.

Your Step Kids Love You

Man in Black Jacket Beside Boy in Pink Jacket Holding Plush Toy during Daytime

After a night of Las Vegas debauchery, a man groggily wakes up to find a scantily dressed girl next to him in bed. On the nightstand, he sees what appears to be a wedding photograph from one of the strip’s wedding chapels. Hastily putting on his glasses he covers his mouth in shock because he realizes he is the one in the film.

Although the woman’s face is partially covered, he notices the cheap wedding ring on her finger. He spots an open purse. He rummages through her handbag and he finds her wallet. He looks at her driver’s license and sees her first name is Christina – he already knows what her last name is.

And before he shuts her bag he finds a wide-ruled paper written in crayon beginning with Dear Mommy. The now-sober man realizes not only is he a husband, but he’s also a brand new stepdad.

The Way To Do It

When a few dates, they make a relationship and fall in love before deciding to get married. In the exact same manner, if there is a child involved and your relationship is heading toward the altar you should start courting your future stepchild. With the purpose of establishing a relationship and creating a relationship before proposing marriage.

Developing a relationship with a potential stepchild is significantly easier and less stressful for all concerned when a spouse is still considered to be a parent’s boyfriend or girlfriend than it is when you become a stepparent. If you currently have children your partner should understand and be able to embrace the truth, you come as a package deal.

Can Not Be Santa

A frequent mistake made by many stepparents-to-be would be to shower their fiancé’s children with gifts in an effort to buy their affections. The first issue is children know when someone is trying to buy their love. They are savvy enough not to fall for the bait.

The second issue is that the child might start to expect gifts from you all of the time and unless you’re Daddy Warbucks, this will eventually put a strain on your finances. Or even worse you contribute to the creation of a spoiled brat that expects to receive everything they want.

The affection and trust of a stepchild come with taking time and effort to develop a real relationship with them – not from trying to push it onto them.

Take an Interest in Your Child

One of the best ways to connect with a new stepchild would be to take an interest in what interests them. If a child isn’t open about what they like, a talk with the biological parent might offer a starting point. If a stepchild is interested in animals, a trip to the zoo might offer a wonderful chance for bonding.

Older children can be harder to pin down and there are fewer chances to bond together. Offering to help with homework or taking an interest in their favorite video game might not be the strongest of beginnings to a connection, but it’s a beginning.

As you’re taking an interest in your future stepchild’s interests, you could also involve your stepchild in your interests. A child already knows their biological parents and has had lots of opportunities to get involved with them and their interests. One of the easiest ways to allow a new stepchild into the life of their new or potential stepparent is to let them get involved in their pursuits.

For example, if the stepmom-to-be is part of a bowling league, the kids may not mind going to the bowling alley and get to watch or even get involved in the game. At the same time, it’s essential to make sure that the stepchild has to spend time with their biological parent.

In shared custody, your stepchildren is only going to receive a limited amount of time to spend with each of the biological parents. You should help make sure your stepchild maintains a healthy relationship with their biological mother and father.

Take Your Time

The greatest gift you can give your new stepchild is time. Remember your stepchild is grieving the loss of their nuclear family. It will take some time for them to get used to the fact their biological parents are no longer living in the same home.

It may take more time for them to accept one or both of their parents have found someone else to fall in love with. It will take at least two or three years before a stepparent can actually build what could be considered a healthy relationship with their stepchildren. This may be made easier if the future stepparent starts to connect with the child prior to the wedding.

The Cowboy Life Is Hard

Person Wearing Cowboy Boots Riding on Horse

1 day you wake up and all of your hero’s are gone. My Father is gone (more on a Mission he flew in a later post), my Great Grandfather is long gone. Its at these times you are thankful you stashed away write ups and articles on them that, at the time when they had been living, only went on the back burner. Below is a write up on my Great Grandfather done by a reporter by the name of Robert Ford in Oklahoma many years back. Each time I read it, the hairs stand up on the back of my neck. I thought I should of lived 100 years back. I always wanted to be like my Grandpa. Now I understand why. I hope you like the article.

Jessie James, Cole Younger, Geronimo all infamous names from American History of the’ “Old West”. To us now these are just names out of the past. We think of it as history. However, the (days of the true old West were again relived when Ivisited Peoples Electric Cooperative’s eldest member-a 97 year old true American cowboy from the days of the old west.

Jim Ingram was born in May of 1866 in Coffee County, Tennessee. When he was two years old, his family moved to Indian Territory by ox wagon. At a young age his mother died. When he was 7 his father died, and he’s been on his own ever since.

Jim Ingram still shaves himself, and he’s very few grey hairs in his entire head of black hair. He doesn’t look his 97 decades. He and Mrs. Ingram live on Route 2, Wyneewood, Oklahoma, where they’ve lived since 1919. The Ingram’s have been happily married since the Spring of 1899. They have one son, one grandson and two granddaughters. Their grandson is a Lieutenant Colonel in the Air Force.

“I worked with inventory and cattle all my life until I retired,” says Ingram. I have rode across Oklahoma when I’d never find a white man. There were not many homes and no fences.”

“Did you ever meet any of the old gun fighters and outlaws of these days?” I asked. “Oh, sure!” He answered, “I’ve seen a great deal of gun fighters while I worked cattle all over Oklahoma. I knew Jessie James quite well, but I knew Cole Younger even better. They would come to our cattle drive camps to hide out. I have slept in camp with them a lot of time. Jessie James was as calm a man as I ever saw. “He did not bother poor people, only robbed banks.”

“Well,” I said, “I guess you’ve had a good deal of interesting experiences?”

“Tell him about the time a tornado like to have got you.” said Mrs. Ingram.

“Well,” he said, “once I was riding my horse when this storm blew up

I could pull on the reins, but I had no control of my horse because we were up in the air, but I don’t know how high. It was so black I couldn’t see. Pretty soon, it set us down on the floor.

“Were you injured?” I asked. “No, we weren’t hurt.” he replied. “You know,” he explained, “I have seen wild buffalo where Oklahoma City now stands.

“I once worked issuing government beef to the Comanche and Apache Indians. The Indians would kill the cows immediately. I saw them eat the meat blood raw. When they were finished, there wouldn’t be anything left. They used it.”

“There was a time when you saw an Indian, and if the Indian did not run, you had better run.”

“Once, I had a horse race Geronimo at Ft. Sill when they had him there.”

I asked.

“By granny, I won the race!” he replied.

1 time a friend and I went to an Indian dancing, but the Indians would not dance with us. I still have that snare. Quanah Parker’s daughter could speak better English than I could.”

The stories we read today, the T.V. and films we see about the “Old West” don’t tell the true story of the life of the cowboy. Spending hours in the saddle is hard work. It was hot and dusty in the summer and cold and wet in winter.

“You see men today,” said Mr. Ingram, “who say they are cow boys, but they couldn’t wear the slicker of the older real cowboys. I could tie a steer in 22 seconds, and would grab 99 throws out of 100. When we drove cows, we had a lot of mean horses, and we had to ride them without holding to the saddle horn. If you held into the horn, the other cowboys would whip your horse and make him buck. I was a true cowboy and a great one.”

Salamanders Are Cute!

Green Iguana on Brown Wood

Salamanders are among the animals which make up the Kingdom Amphibia, especially the order Caudata. There are around 400-500 species known worldwide and some of them are mostly found in the temperate lands of tropical South, Central America and all over the Northern hemisphere. In the past, salamanders have spread out in regions like British Columbia and central Labrador. If you wish to know more about them, then below are some of the interesting facts about salamanders.

Salamanders vary in sizes. Some might only get to the size of 3.9 cm while others may reach up to the size of 180 cm. Among the smallest salamanders is the 4-toed salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum) that just reaches 5-9 cm. On the other hand, one of the largest is the mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) that may reach a length of 43 cm. Salamander’s life span also varies. The Chinese giant salamander can live for around 52 years while other salamanders may only reach a couple of years.

Salamanders closely resemble the lizards. That’s the main reason they are typically mistaken as lizards. However, salamanders don’t have the characteristics that lizards have. For example, salamanders do not have claws. Also, they’ve moist skin compared to lizards that have dry and scaly skin.

Normally, salamanders can not hear sounds; rather, they depend on the vibrations they sense in the environment. These animals are also voiceless, although some species have the ability to generate soft squeaks. Some of these species breathe through their pair of nostrils, while others breathe through gills or skin, or at times in combination. They often have movable eyelids and nice teeth. Their heart consists of 2 atria and one ventricle, making it a 3-chambered organ.


Salamanders hibernate every year so as to survive. Since they cannot endure extremely cold temperatures, they need to dig underground. Aquatic salamanders are generally active at any given time of the year while terrestrial salamanders are only active during night time, or when the soil is moist or damp. Temperate seasons or warm interval may immediately cause them dehydration.


There are two ways on how the eggs of the salamanders could be fertilized. It can be through external or internal fertilization. Internally, the male will fall jellylike capsule of sperms and the female will eventually take up these sperms through the lips of the cloaca. The eggs are fertilized as they are pushed out. On the other hand, external fertilization occurs when the egg is currently outside the salamanders’ body.


Normally, salamanders are carnivorous. Smaller species like small insects and small invertebrates while salamander larvae eat tadpoles.

Importance in the Environment

Salamanders are considered as great advantage in the area of agriculture and forest industry because they consume harmful insects that may destroy crops and plants. Without them, a break in the food chain can happen and problems associated with plant industry may arise.

Salamanders today are continuously decreasing in quantity because a great deal of universities and research labs catch them and make them subjects in their studies. That’s the reason local laws are protecting these salamanders in order to maintain their numbers in the wild. Take your part in the campaign of saving salamanders. Read more information about salamanders so you will understand how to care for them properly.

This Telescope You Won’t Believe

Free stock photo of telescope, science, discover, world

Shrinking the Telescope – “Astronomers from the past 50 years have created wondrous discoveries, enlarged our comprehension of the universe and opened humanity’s vision beyond the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Our understanding of how the cosmos was born and how many of its phenomena arise has grown exponentially in only one human lifetime. In spite of these terrific strides there remain basic questions that are largely unanswered. To further our understanding of how our present universe formed after the Big Bang requires a new sort of Observatory having capabilities currently unavailable in either existing ground-based or space telescopes.”

The bigger is better notion is so embodied within our understanding, that just the notion of smaller more efficient telescope seems to defy all the laws of mathematics. Yet, science always supports Miniature Size Telescopes. It is, however, the lock of comprehension of the fundamental principle of focus that’s deprives us over the centuries. Research in this field has provided a complete understanding of the science behind optical telescope performance that has contributed to the design of the next generation of telescopes. The debut size of mini telescope are the size of a viewfinder currently used on present telescopes. However, these new generation of telescopes will posses resolving powerful greater than even the biggest known telescope.

Technique in lens and mirror manufacturing has improved significantly over time. With the aid of computers, lasers, and robotics technologies, optics can be made with precision accuracy. Finally, the size of telescopes will reduce to wearable instrument as small as a pair of glasses, in the not so distance future. They will have the benefit of precise movement and shock absorbent the human mind provides. Wide field of view like that of the naked eye, impressive focus, infinite magnification (restricted only by light pollution and disturbance), and brightness allowing snap shot colour photographing and live video recording. The design reserves the potential to be up-graded and customized. After almost 400 years of telescope development, we now have a revolutionary breakthrough now capable of reshaping telescopes science and make revolutionary optical devices to shrink football size telescopes to a view finder, and become a pair of glasses.

The Impossible Made Possible – As our technological accomplishments shape the future, we find ways to make the impossible possible. We constantly improve present technology by making them smaller and more efficient. Oftentimes, smaller more integrated designs increase the broad category of efficiencies. We’re now capable of producing instruments on a microscopic scale, with the exception of the optical telescope. Optical telescope is the only tool that actually grows in size rather then shrink. As we progress in research and development of these instruments, they grow bigger in size with each new creation. It is every astronomer dream to have access to a high resolving power telescope, yet small enough to be mobile.

However, it is embedded in our heads that we are not able to increase resolution with decreased size in a single design. In relation to this, engineers continue to build bigger and larger instruments, producing monsters and giants. The reason Miniature Size Telescope is deemed hopeless lies not only with optical science, but also with unclear comprehension of the principle of light. We still do not understand the intricate interaction involved in both seeing and shooting images, until today. It is for this uncertainty, why we still use two different theories of light. Light is seen as a particle that accelerates from point A to point B, and light can also be seen as waves that transmit by way of wave motion. Where one concept fails to make sense, another is implemented. Mini Size Telescope is base on ‘Unify Theory of Light’.

The Science – Our eyes are very unique: a young person’s pupil dilates between 7 and 2 millimeters, yet, the eye posses the ability to view images several thousands meters in diameter. Our wide field of view offers convincing evidence that we view converging image rays and not parallel beams. Converging beams describe rays that convert towards some point. Therefore, image carried by these rays decrease their cross sectional area with space travel. Images collected by the greatest telescope aperture, actually enters the couple millimeters of our eyes. Small sight angle (true field) at seconds of a degree, so small the mind finds it difficult to isolate the details they feature for recognition, when they are factored into our full field of view. These small-angles of advice get compressed within our large field of view, and seem to be just a little spot or become invisible.

Nevertheless, magnification provides the means by which little sight angles are converted to larger ones. A refractor telescope with an aperture of 30 millimeters and 120 millimeters focal length (focal ratio f/4), offering a magnifying power of 5x times and will have an exit pupil of 5 millimeters. This is a really bright telescope, tapping near the maximum of 7 millimeters opening of the student. If a second telescope was constructed, having identical aperture size of 30 millimeters, but have a focal length of 1200 millimeters (f/40). Instead of a 5 millimeters exit pupil, such telescope will now have an exit pupil of only 0.5 millimeter. From the identical formula, to obtain a 50x times magnifying power and an exit pupil of 5 millimeters, the aperture needed is 300 millimeters.

Refractor telescopes can’t obtain a 7 millimeters exit student without being affected by aberrations. So as to overcome this, telescope designers attempt to allocate a balance between brightness and magnification. Resolving power describes this equilibrium. The compromise will reduce brightness, but increase magnification power and image clarity by exactly the same proportion. The ocular plays an significant role in finalizing the picture of the apparent field. They are capable of influencing field of view, magnification, and exit pupil (brightness). From this case, one can see that magnification is inversely proportional the diameter of the exit pupil, and exit pupil is directly proportional to brightness.

From the larger is better formulation, we know that by increasing the aperture of the objective, we could increase the exit pupil and therefore the brightness of the image. In designing optical systems, the optical engineer must make tradeoffs in controlling aberrations to accomplish the desired outcome. Aberrations are any errors that result in the imperfection of a picture. Such errors can result from design or manufacture or both.

Achromatic lenses are designed to reduce color aberration generated whenever white light is refracted, but with the best designs, color aberration cannot be totally eliminated. Color aberration also contains a secondary effect known as the secondary spectrum. The longer the focal ratio, the fainter the secondary spectrum becomes. Color aberration restricts most refractors into a focal ratio of f/15. Reflectors, which will be less influenced by color aberration, has focal ration of f/5 for industrial design and f/2.5 for professional layouts. Within known telescope design, the various conditions necessary for picture perfection is integrated, thus forcing engineers to compromise to obtain a close balance that will render the best possible picture.

What if magnification, focus, and brightness can be separated? The new formula for âEUR~Miniature Size Telescopes’ isolates all the factors and allow each to be independently tuned for optimum efficiency.

The Need for Magnifying Power- “The Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (Owl) is an wonderful project, which requires international work. This enormous telescope main mirror will be more than 100 meters in diameters and will have resolution 40 times better than the Hubble Space Telescope.

The demand for greater magnifying power began with the Galilean design. Research and experiments to improve the telescope’s magnification shows that growth in magnification power is directly proportional to the difference in the focal length of the objective and the ocular (eyepiece), where the ocular focal length is the shorter of the two. The race to construct the most effective telescope started at an early age in telescope growth. The best minds at the time compete to dominate the shaping of the new technology.

In this age, telescope tubes were created very long. Occasionally, these tubes reach span that leaves them unstable. In some cases the tubes were removed from the instrument’s design. Tubeless telescopes were called aerial telescopes. As telescope Engineers compete to develop more powerful telescopes, they encountered a secondary issue that limits the length and magnification of those ancient ‘refractor’ telescope designs. They notice that pictures became darken with growth magnification. Some how, magnification was decreasing the amount of light entering or exiting the telescope lenses. The explanation for this phenomenon, was that enough light was not exiting the telescope’s ocular, as enough light wasn’t been collected at the objective. An increase in the aperture size increases the exit pupil and the problem of dark image with magnification was solved.

At this stage in telescope growth, just Keplerian and Galilean ‘refractor’ telescopes were invented. Lens making was in its early stages and it was hard to fabricate quality lenses. Large aperture lenses were even a bigger challenge. Refractor telescope shortly reach its’ size limitation, but now that the next section to the formulation for high resolving power is famous, reflector telescope of many variations was born.

To date, almost 400 years later, the same formula is still used. Modem improvements only increase the quality of the optics now use, where alteration minimized aberrations. We can now build larger telescopes with resolving power and brightness educated possible in the time of Galileo, but the formula used in creating these modem instruments is the same as the oldest designs-bigger is better. The bigger is better formulation is not without limitations. Reflectors are not influenced by secondary spectrum effect. Focal ratio in the assortment of ff2.5 is reasonable when requiring exit pupil near 7 millimeters. However, any effort to increase magnification within these reflector telescopes while maintaining equilibrium, will require growth in the aperture and the focal length in the exact same proportion. It’s these design features that makes the phrase âEUR~bigger is better’ so persuasive.

Previous Limitations – Understanding of the principle of light has rewarded us with the development of modern optical technologies. The current article is written to present a breakthrough in research and development of Little Powerful Telescopes. Most major telescope generates will inform you that magnification isn’t of significant importance; and that brightness is a more pronounce concern a purchaser should have when shopping for a telescope. Magnification and brightness are equally important for viewing and shooting distant images, but the most important factor in rendering details in a picture, is focus. Of all of the basic principles involve in capturing an image, focus is less known. The awareness of a picture focal point and the way to achieve a focus image is easily calculated, but what would be the electrodynamics interactions which written a focus picture is still unanswered.

All optical devices are design around focus; hence it will always be a top priority in the formation of clear image. Magnification and brightness are of secondary importance, they are the result after focus is reached. It is the critical distance of attention that determine the maximum brightness and magnification at which an image will be clearly seen. Magnification refers to the action of converting smaller sight angles (true field) into larger ones (apparent field), this provide change in the angle where the image rays are obtained, thus, tricking the brain into believing that the thing is either closer or bigger then it really is. If it was not for the need for attention, a single convex lens âEUR”a magnifier-would be a telescope capable of infinite zoom magnification, through the action of simply varying the space it is held from the eye. Unfortunately, however, there is a critical distant at which pictures are focus through one lens or even a system of lenses. This is also referred to as the critical distance of focus.

What’s focus? Webster’s Dictionary: fo-cus; is the distinctness or clarity with which an optical system leaves an image.

Early lens manufacturer, Jan Lippershey was experimenting with two different lenses when he discovered that the effect of distant magnification. He discovered that by holding a negative lens near the eye while holding a positive lens in alignment with the first, away from the eye, that remote objects seemed much nearer than they would with the naked eye. Even with today’s technology, telescope designers are still confronted with major design constraints and challenges that forge a compromise between telescope size, brightness, and image clarity. Scientists have always been puzzled by the nature of light. Sir Isaac Newton regards light as stream of tiny particles traveling in straight line. Dutch scientist Christian Huygens, on the other hand, believed that light consisted of waves in a substance known as the ether, which he assumed fill space, including a vacuum. Huygens concept became accepted as the better concept of both. Today, however, scientists think that light include a stream of tiny wave pockets of energy called photons.

The Bigger is Better Formula – “With a telescope which has 10 times the collecting area of every telescope ever built. You would be able to go down a few thousand times fainter than the faintest thing you see with todayâEUR~s telescopes.”

The formulation that shaped known telescopes over the centuries of growth is pretty basic, well known, and proven- bigger is better. This is the same as saying that larger aperture provides brighter image, while longer focal length provides greater magnification. Let’s put the formula into the test. Can large magnification be obtained without long focal length objective? Microscopes provide very large magnification with relatively short focal length objective. Is it possible to collect light without very large aperture size? Again, the answer is yes. Microscope also shows this. Why is it that microscopes give great magnification with adequate brightness in a relatively small size, while telescopes cannot? This shows that it isn’t the law of magnification nor brightness, but it the instrument’s design limitations that insist upon the concept that bigger is better. A fundamental Keplerian design telescope functions as a microscope when seen through the opposite end of the tube.

A global standard full size student microscope supplies as much as 400x magnifying power, yet this type of microscope consists of a tube less then 20 centimeter in length. Adequate light is reflected from its’ plain-o-convex mirror less than 7 centimeters in diameter. So as to obtain identical brightness and magnifying power in a telescope, focal ratio of f/2.5 is advised for an exit pupil near 7 millimeters. Such telescope will require an aperture of 320 centimeters (3.2 meters) and a focal length of 800 centimeters (8 meters), calculating roughly with a 20 millimeters ocular. This is an increase of nearly 50x in size. Focusing of remote images is more challenging than focusing of close-up images. We can prove this using a single magnifying lens that is held close to the eye. Objects further then 2/3 the focal length of the lens will probably be out of focus.

All optical systems are design around focus. In order to vary magnification and brightness, focus has to be constant. We might compromise magnification for brightness and visa- a- verse, but we can never undermine focus. Therefore, rather than saying that magnification M is inversely proportional to brightness, it’s also true to say that magnification M is equal to concentrate divided by brightness B, where attention is a continuous D.

M = D/B

Magnification power (M) = concentrate constant (D) / Brightness (B) Within know optical telescope design, all three variables are incorporated. Focus has been the primary element for rendering a crystal clear image, whilst magnification and brightness both functions as a secondary element in the appearance of a focused picture. The resolving power is used to sum up the performance of a telescope. It is created by the telescope’s ability to imprint details within an image. Magnifying a picture involve stretching these dots. Light magnification is significantly different from image magnification, and magnifies by altering the angle of the obtained picture light.

But there is the breakthrough question, what if these 3 important elements could be isolated and separately tuned? Hm mm. Telescope engineering won’t be the same again, and the science of astronomy will explode.

Archery Rules

Free stock photo of industry, arrow, table, technology

Historical documents indicate that archery has been around for quite a long time. In times past, archery was used in warfare and for hunting. However, since the growth of the firearm, archery has become a recreational activity. An arrow is a shaft with an arrowhead in the front and a nock and fletching in the back of the shaft. Before, arrow shafts were made from wooden material. The downside with wooden archery arrows is that they are prone to warping.

Manufacturers are now using materials which are more durable such as fiberglass, aluminum, and carbon fiber. Shafts made out of fiberglass are straight and brittle. The aluminum shaft has the benefit of being lighter in weight and travel faster than the fiberglass shaft. However, the very best material to use in making the shaft is the carbon fiber.

Archery competitions involve shooting archery arrows in a set target from a prescribed distance. Target archery is both an indoor and outdoor game. The indoor game has a variety of 18 to 25 meters. The goals are set up and archers take part by shooting at least three archery arrows within a specified period. When all the archers have shot their arrows, all of the opponents move to the aims to compute their scores and retrieve their arrows. The targets are marked with concentric rings with every ring signifying a particular score. The exterior game has a range between 30 to 90 meters. The very same rules apply in conducting the outdoor sport.

Aside from the target archery, there is also the field archery. Field archery involves three types of rounds. In the area around, archers shoot at targets set up 80 yards off. The archer must aim to hit the target at the white center or the black outer. Each portion of the goal has a particular score. The hunter round isn’t any different except that the targets are placed at an irregular distance 70 yards off. The targets to aim for would be the black fur and the bull’s attention. The animal round is very exciting. It features life-size 2D animal targets placed at a distance. The entire scenario resembles a real life hunting expedition. 3D archery is also quite popular among ‘hunters’ because it involves shooting arrows at life sized models of real game.

There are other forms of archery which are also quite popular with archers such as flight archery, ski archery and cross- bow archery. In flight archery, the opponents aim to see who can take the furthest. This sport occurs in flat plateau-like areas. Ski archery, on the other hand, involves skiing within a established track and then shooting at targets set up at particular areas along the skiing track. Archery accessories make the game even easier to play. Accessories like archery target stands, 3D antelope goal and wheeled goal stands are in popular usage today.